Wednesday, July 17, 2013

An interview with Sabahudin Hadžialić, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

      1.     How important is poetry for Sabahudin Hadžialić today? What are the themes you write about?

First of all I would kindly like to express gratitude for the possibility to be interviewed for prestige Maltese magazine  – „Il-Pont“ in regards questions about my literature, and especially the poetry.
It is very easy to have an answer for your first question and it is in the word of „creativity“. Suddenly, I can feel thyt appears a lot of questions within the question itself, but as usual, the answer is within...the question. Little bit confusing, isn't it? Yes, but only on the surface. Namely, as Sternberg back in 2005 have said: Creativity is possibility to produce new, quality one and adequate (useful) product[i]“. Myself, as the one who writes for almost 35  years (since 1979) see my product as my poetry as my life...if you allow me, I will not further analyse and explain (within the relation to my poetry) what Sternberg wrote, but I would like to underline that  having in mind that poetry is the product of mind, and not just of heart (it is also very difficult to have a pump to produce nothing else than to...pump) as well, we have to agree that we must be more engaged as artist than just to write about the flowers and love[ii] all the time. Because, when somebody writes poetry it is assumed that the main subject is,of course love. Yes, it is partially, but it is just one of many, subjects that came out from each mind. Of poets. The way how we will express our thoughts within poetry will depends on our social presence, our heritage and, of course, our knowledge and perception of the world in which we are writing poetry. As I have said a long time ago:“It is not difficult to write. It is difficult to know how to write.“ But, having min mind that, as one of my short poems[iii] said: „There are two worlds/Mine/And the real one.“ we, if wont to be real artists, have to engaged in social-politic way to be able to express our mission/message tothe world. To explain? Easy. Not like politician, but as the people who sees beyond politics and sees the world as better place for everyone, regardlles their political, social, racial and gender position[iv] or behaviour. We have to respect diversities as the most given opportunity from God (if there is any, after all, after last 100 years in which more people have bruttaly murdered than in the last 2000 years through Three World wars and in so call „peace period of time“ that we are living within.
My themes are to be engaged as social and political poet who will try to give possibility to my readers to see me as the one with the message but also as the one of them.
Just to, practically, show...[v]My three poems of different kind of thoughts in front of you: 


of my own madness
is shining
within the night of my restlessness.
Treating  the cries
of human dreams
I cannot do alone.
With whom I will?
And when?


The poem about her
decanted with my tears
through decades

And, within the time of  blenching
light flashes
through the distance and intention...

The poem disappeared
with return of her.

Am I wrong,
Or she is my

The place
of personalization of the direct
and the starting end
of civilization.
Wondering value of try
within the announcement
of disappearance of the species.
Two thousand years

We are the message, besides creating the message, through the poetry. We (as humans, above all)  are my themes.

2. How do people in Bosnia-Herzegovina look at poetry and how is the poetry situation there today?

As all around the world, new media, such as social networks (Facebook. Twitter and other ones) confirmed something what has been said  by the on of the most famous poets in former Yugoslavia[viii]  whose name was Branko Miljković[ix]: „The time will come when everybody will write and publish poetry“ .Yes, he was completely right because there are more poets than ever but less poetry than ever. Through new media, as mentioned, we have new poets, new critics, new jury, but there is one thing missing...poetry. Yes, I know that a lot of people we hate what I will say right now, but the quantity did not produce quality this time. On contrary, the lack of knowledge have produced a lack of artistic and poetry with the messsage. Do to not believe  me? Just go on social media networks and you will find million illiterate poets and even more illiterate readers. Because of the lack of predicted and foreseen knowledge of the world and him/herself within it. On other hand, new media (is you use it properly) can be of help in connecting the knowledge of the world. Bosnia and Herzegovina is not the exception of both above mentioned. Namely, the poetry situation is here even worst than in other countries. The country of little bit more than 4 million inhabitants have three etnic association of writers[x] and a lot of festivals, competitions, awards for poetry and etc. But, in the same time, more than 40 % the people can consider themselves as illiterate, and I add „and the other 60 % should prove that they are not“. Thera are a lot of new and good poets arriving within Bosnia and Herzegovina: Goran Vrhunc, Jagoda Iličić, Nihad Mešić, Samira Begman, Alma Jeftić, Anesa Kazić and others whose names I can not remember right now, but they have not been recognized by the most of the best mainstream cultural magazines (except DIOGEN pro culture magazine[xi]). Why? Because they are not part of any clans and fractions within the poetry world of Bosnia and Herzegovina. They are self-awared poets who is trying to pass the message that the beaty is within the diversity. DIOGEN pro culture magazines gice them that chance according to the slogan of it „We are unyfing diversities“.
To make long story short – Poetry in Bosnia and Herzegovina today have been knocked down, but the battle have not yet being lost. Through expansion of the knowledge of the quality of diversity (within all nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina) and the expansion of knowledge about themselves in and around the world of creation, the situation will improve. From my side, as a poet I will do my best to do so.

3. You are very active in the cultural sector and not only as a poet. You give lots of space to other writers, poets and artists too. How? Does this help to strengthen people's love for poetry and art in your country?

As started within the answer on previous question, I think, that after 4 years (since 2009) as a new cultural star on the sky of culture, art and education (I will dare to say – of the world) DIOGEN pro culture magazine[xii] have shown that not just in my country stregthening of poetry and art may happen. How? Just to mentioned- we have presented 265 poets and writers from more than 60 countries worldwide in the magazine; we have our regular columnists from the area of South_East Europe and Europe as well; we have published online and in print 3 annual issues of DIOGEN pro culture magazine, 37 issues (monthly) of DIOGEN pro art magazine (presenting academy artists from all world continents) and 1 issue of DIOGEN pro youth magazine. And other things as well, being socially and politically aware that the future is within the unyfing of diversities as the best future not just for my country but to the world itself. We all need just to be honest and say loudly „I do not want to do something to other people what I do not want them to do me. If I will do something it will be doing...good...Because, doing good, in long terms...wins.“ Let us seat down, discuss within the possibility to have consensual democracy and you will see. The world will be better place. Naive? Maybe, but even the flood was the rain drop at the beginning. 
Also as coomunicative discurse, the poetry is very important. How we can talk about poetry and to mention communication within it?
Is the poetry communication sui generis or eo ipso communication of the poetry is establishment of the new message without borders within the world of globalisation?
Number of words which somebody uses to frame up one poem is equally proportional to the power of his or her vision.
But, to make an analyse of modern poetry within the framework of communication it is no so difficult, but neither it is easy. Namely, let us put some point which can be underlined as starting point for discussion:
1.     Why people writes poetry? To send an inner message to outside world, or to release the burden of inside reflections from their souls.
2.     Does the communication that comes out from the written or verbal poetry means anything else than just a message of one person to another or many?
Since communication in poetry occurs through parallelism (segmentation) rather than logical and sequential communication (prose), it was deemed necessary that syntactic analysis was better realized prior to poetic devices. Is it?
Also, today we distinguish between poetry and song, yet for the ancient Greeks, a "lyrical" poem meant a song—words accompanied by a lyre. Sound, then, has always been fundamental to poetry. The word "prosody" is now used to define the study of poetry, comes from the Greek "prosodia," or a poem sung to music. The first remnant of a written poem dates to 2600 BCE Sumer, but poetry as an oral tradition is likely to have existed beforehand. When dissecting a poem, it is important to keep sound in mind. Just as a person may strike us as charming or untrustworthy not by their character but their manner, so a poem may strike us as beautiful or jarring not through meaning, but through sound. Take this poem, by example:
                                       Death is a simple thing
                                                      K. I. Galczynski

 Death is simple as a cradle
both are miracles of loss and gain
in the perfectly perfected present tense
is – isn’t
isn’t – is
there’s material evidence 
beyond all doubt[xiii]

The subject is obscure at first as she contradicts herself and omits natural, vocal pauses through enjambment[xiv]. The effect is that we pause at the end of the line without finishing a complete phrase, sounding as if we are short of breath or being "strangled," by material evidence just as the author is. So the meaning is confusing syntactically, but lucid sonically. When I use relatively obtuse terms such as tercet and enjambment my intention is to be clear. The terminology used to describe the sonic conventions of poetry is specific and consequently vast. Knowing the terminology is helpful to understanding a poem, though by no means necessary—it is simply the proscribed method of articulating what the poem is doing in order to manipulate your emotion. Its hardly ever useful beyond academia, but it will give you poetic authority, even if you have no idea what the poem actually means. At its most useful, the terminology is the fastest way to convey your opinion on a poem, and the more terms you know, the more you know what to look for while reading.
Before I get into analytic terms, however, it might be useful to give a quick timeline of poetry in modern English. Modern English poetry falls into 7 general historic categories: RenaissanceAugustanRomanticVictorianModernPostmodern and  Contemporary. The Renaissance (16th century) produced poets such as Thomas Campion, Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare; in the 17th century lived Milton; in the Augustan period (late 17th century to early 18th century, called so because of a return to the Classical poetic form) wrote Pope, Thomas Gray, and Samuel Johnson; The Romantic period (around the turn of the 19th century) includes Blake, Keats, Shelley, Bryon, Coleridge, and Wordsworth; the Victorian period (mid to late 19th century) produced Robert Browning, Elizabeth Browning, Tennyson and Hopkins. The Modern period (1880-1950)—Yeats, T.S. Eliot, Whitman, Dickinson, Wallace Stevens and Ezra Pound; The Postmoderns (roughly 1950-80) include William Carlos Williams, Bishop, Ferlinghetti, Ginsberg, and Frank O'Hara; Contemporaries (those still alive today) include John Ashbery, Mark Strand, Mary Oliver, Billy Collins, Seamus Heaney, Paul Muldoon and Jorie Graham.
Many of the devices we use today to analyze poetry are from Latin versification. Enjambment, for example, comes from the French word "to straddle," and occurs when a phrase ends not at a natural line break, but in the next line, as if to "straddle" the two lines. Toward the beginning of The Aeneid, Vergil writes:
insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores
Impulerit. Tantaene animis caelestibus irae?
This is obviously Latin, not English, but even without any knowledge of the language one can see how the phrase does not end naturally at "labores," but in the next line, emphasizing "Impulerit," which happens to be the main verb. In this same excerpt is an example of the caesura, another important poetic device that derives from Latin verse. A caesura is a vocal pause (often indicated by a comma or a period) that breaks a line into two halves; it is commonly used to contrast ideas. In Latin poetry, a caesura may only occur between the first and fourth feet of a poem, a foot consisting of two to three vowel sounds. Additionally, in Latin, a caesura must break up a foot—in the example above, the caesura occurs at the period after "Impulerit." If "Im-pu-le" is the first foot (it is a dactyl, but that will be explained later,) then "it-Tan" is the second foot (a spondee), with the period standing in the middle, acting as a caesura. In modern English poetry, a caesura is generally used to mean any pause within a line, for meter is not as proscriptive as it was in Vergil's day (The Aeneid is written in dactylic hexameter, which means that every line has six feet, and every fifth foot must be a dactyl).
Anaphora is a term used to describe repetition, deriving from the Greek word "to bring back." The Latin poet Catullus used it in line 63 poem #63:
Ego mulier, ego adulescens, ego ephebus, ego puer,
Without knowing Latin, we are struck by the word "Ego," showing the significance of sound even before comprehension in poetry ("Ego," is "I" in Latin, and as you have rightly assumed, ancestral to the English word "ego").
A favorite Latin device of mine is the chiasmus. Latin is remarkable for its sentence structure; the ancients appear to have thrown their verbs and nouns around wherever they pleased, resulting in some unique poetic devices. A chiasmus, derived from the Greek word for a cross, occurs when a sentence or phrase follows an ABBA structure, as in "Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country." In Woodrow Wilson's famous epigram, A stands for "your country," and B for "you." The most famous example of a chiasmus in antiquity is Catullus' poem #85, a brief two lines that read,
Odi et amo. Quare id faciam, fortqasse requiris?
Nescio, sed fieri sentio et excrucior.
If you don't know Latin that sounds like a whole lot of mumbo-jumbo, but one thing might have stood out: the bookend verb pairs "Odi et amo" and "sentio et excrucior." Without knowing Latin, we hear a repetition that encloses the rest of the poem, just as the A in the chiasmus encloses the two Bs. Translated, these verb pairs read, "I hate and I love" and "I feel and am crucified." The negative verbs, the As, enclose the loving, emotional verbs, the Bs. This poem is a double chiasmus, crossing in sound and meaning. In addition, "excrucior," which sounds harsh without knowing Latin, means "I am crucified," contributing even more to the imagery of a cross implied by a chiasmus. (Draw a line between "sentio" and "amo" and another between "excrucior" and "Odi." See? A cross.)
If these Latin devices interested you, you might want to read further about litotes, metonymysynecdoche, and elegiac verse. With the exception of elegiac verse, a meter which seldom appears in English poetry, these terms are not sonic devices but figurative, and so I will not attempt to demonstrate them. They are very fun to pull out in conversation, however, so I suggest you google them.
I mentioned much about feet while demonstrating the caesura. Feet are fundamental to meter in both Latin and English poetry. We use the same categories that the Romans did for scansion, or the method of determining a poem's meter. There are three main types of feet: a iamb, a trochee and aspondee. A iamb is an unstressed vowel sound followed by a stressed, atrochee is the inverse, a stressed vowel sound followed by an unstressed, and aspondee is two stressed vowel sounds. What is two unstressed vowel sounds called, you may ask? This is less common and called a pyrrhic foot. The word "pyrrhic" comes from the Greek leader Pyrrhichus, who invented a dance in which the motions of war are imitated. Shakespeare implements all four types when he writes,
When to the sessions of sweet, silent thought
The first foot, "When to," is a stressed vowel and an unstressed: a trochee; the second, "the sess," is an unstressed then a stressed: a iamb; the third, "ions of" is two unstressed: a pyrrhic foot; and the last two feet, "sweet, si" and "lent thought," are both two stressed vowels, or spondees. The meter of the line feels fast in the beginning, but once it hits the stressed spondees, vocally we must slow down the words in order to hit the stresses, giving weight to "sweet, silent thought." Even if Shakespeare is somewhat complicated in his diction, his meter will often direct his point. Also used in English is the dactyl, or one stressed vowel followed by two unstressed, and the less common anapest, the inverse, two unstressed vowels followed by one stressed. The first line of Tennyson's "The Charge of The Light Brigade" contains two dactyls:
Half a league, half a league,
While William Cowper's "Verses Supposed to be Written by Alexander Selkirk" contains three anapests in a line:
I am out of humanity's reach
Compare the dactyl's stressed, unstressed, unstressed in "Half a league" with the anapest's unstressed, unstressed, stressed in "I am out." The first is forceful, the second sounds near impotent, out of control. The meter directly correlates with the meaning of the poems: Tennyson's describes a "charge," Cowper's, estrangement.
When people comment that Shakespeare writes in iambic pentameter, they mean that his lines favor a iambic cadence, using other feet only to shift emotion, and are five feet to a line. Writing in iambic dimeter would be two feet to a line; three feet is trimeter; four is tetrameter; five is pentameter; and six ishexameter. "The Charge of the Light Brigade," two feet per line and favoring dactyls, is an example of dactylic dimeter.
So, was this communication discurs of modern poetry and/or something else?
So, was this a lesson or just a hint of communication within the poetry?
So, was this a poetry communication agenda or just a short fiction?
Let's discuss and hear what you have to say, dear readers. I am always open for discussion[xv].

4. People like you in Bosnia Herzegovina still prefer to write and read poetry in the native language or have you realised the importance of exporting your literature through other languages?

I was lucky being thought English language (and still learning, of course). As I have said in the interview given few months ago to the International magazine for poetry, poetic culture and spirituallity „Kado“ from Romania and its editor (famous Romanian poet and writer) Marius Chelaru, I will repeat again:“ I do not want to be national writer. I want to be writer of the nations.“ That is the answer on your question, dear Patrick. I writes poetry in BHS language, but I can feel it in other languages as well. When I read not just my poetry in English, but ot he other ones as well. In other languages the poetry does not just sound differently, but also influence all of us in different kind of way. I would like to wider my answer and explain this because after being translated and published in fifteen world languages (in magazines and books published)[xvi] I can say that every new translation is the new poems. To explain? Again, easy. Should we talk about translating or rendering[xvii]?
It is very difficult to distinguish methodologically, and in the same time it is very easy to face with the challenge to explainthe above title of the assumed essay.
Thus, while on one hand translation is the introduction of civilizational[xviii], cultural[xix] and literary[xx] norms implied within the space and time in which we live, in the other in front of us is the uncovers the world of rendering that opens a entirely different door. Of the paradise. Does it?
About that little bit later - now we should  immediately separate the  translation from rendering  although both forms are very complementary.  Verses[xxi] renders while novels and stories[xxii] translates. Such a rough definition of diversity is very sensitive and place many questions that needs answers.
At the very beginning there is, within the translation of prose, try of the approach of one culture to another. How? The translator is faced with space and time unknown to him, or at least partially known, and his wish is that he wanted to get close to the time and space in which he currently lives. And translates. Introducing with the creation which he translates is not only reading, knowing the language of translation and orientation towards the long and difficult work of the "literal" translation. No! In front of him is to be introduced the culture of time and space which  he translates. He  must know the historical, cultural and civilizational weft of the issue he is focused on about which he is talking and doing about during the translation, because the book[xxiii] he might like it or not, but in the same time he must be also not just a translator but a historian, linguist, sociologist, and a bit philosopher and politician as well. Because you never know what can be "lost in translation".
Then we arrive to the rendering of which occurs within the prose as well as an upgrade because there is a thin line between a person's awareness of the translation and doing it. To clarify-  Just because of entering of someone creations in a new space, but often also in new time, we are faced with two types of translation – literal kind and free kind[xxiv]. At first we are just under the jurisdiction of  our own responsibilities and knowledge of the language from which we are translating[xxv], and at the second we certainly have to know our own language on which are translating into. Yes, not just only that, but also we have to, through rendering, refining and shaping the creation. Now we comes to the interaction of the translation with rendering, because there is an invisible border where we cross from one to the another part of the work. And doing.
Great nations have big translations and rendering, while small nations have small translations and renderings.
However  all, in fact, depends on:
1.     Orientation of the state[xxvi] to assist the invasion of its creations into other spaces and times
2.     The strength and skill of those who translates and renders the creations.
Item 1. is very contradictory because also from small people comes big translations[xxvii] but also from great nations. But, generally speaking, the smaller[xxviii] nations must invest more in translating to shape up their place under the sun of the world appearances. Thanks to the World Wide Web, we have come closer to the absolute freedom[xxix] which can become absolute[xxx] only until it threatens the freedom of others and different ones, where we can make contacts, exchange of knowledge and hopes. And in any moment not to forget that we are, first and foremost, the humans. But there is a "catch-22" that exactly at Internet generates suspicion. Because more than 95% of the World Wide Web is polluted with overall ugly forms of representation of translation and / or renderings[xxxi] that makes disservice for the  culture they come from.
Item 2. is a conditio sine qua non of translation and/or rendering. Though I agree with Mladen Machideom[xxxii] who sets seven postulates within translating of poetry: the reasons of translation[xxxiii], translation[xxxiv] effects, questioning the translation as such, melancholy after translation, moralism with translation, solidarity with other translators, poetry and function of translatio, I would add one more thing. Simple one and it is in two words:  Rendered translation[xxxv] which can be very good upgrade.
At the same time, we must take into account the historical assumptions when translating and/or renderings are in question. Some creationss have to wait hundreds of years to be translated and/or rendered for one reason or another[xxxvi], and some are here, just around the corner, as once upon a time "bread and games" where we have a home writers and poets, depending on how close to the government or not they are. But, thanks to the liberalization of consciousness (within the specified 5%) the quality, and not just assumption of the market, sometimes knows how to be avangard. But the patience is needed. Because of that I have to answer the question "Does it ...?" from the beginning of the essay on translation or rendering. We just have to make sure that the waves of inspiration do not carry us and crash us the rocks of the hopes. One thing is what the author has written, and quite another  one how we translated or rendered it. If we are not "taught" to think just about it.
So, translation or rendering? Both, because the translating and the rendering are of the equal forces only when they are molded wtihin the creation which is transferred from one culture to another, from one area to another.
Just on that have thought Jules Marouzeau in The application of Latin language[xxxvii] when he mentioned problems in transferring creations from one culture to another.
However, as a conclusion imposes quotes of the translators from the area of South-Eastern Europe, Zlatko Crnkovic: "When you read the translation as the original, it's beautiful[xxxviii]," or something slightly towards East at Milorad Pavic, author of "Khazar Dictionary" and the translator of Pushkin[xxxix] and Byron, who says that the character of Onegin has been made up of three elements: the autobiographical character, appearance of the character and contradiction within the character. If we take as a modus causalis both, Zlatko and Milorad, we get what every translated creation must have: translation and rendering. In that is the solution, regardless if we're talking about fictional or poetic creations.
If we know what we are doing. Not just for ourselves. But primarily for readers to whom we offer the creation for judgment and understanding.
And last, but certainly not the least is that we must never overlooked  that "he's not the biggest fool who can not read, but the one who thinks that everything he reads is true[xl]." To be able by ourselves to read creations which we are translating or rendering, we need to know how to separate the truth from the lie. It is the same with translation as well as with rendering. Simply, we have to know when to do the translation and when to do rendering. Simply, we  have[xli] to know when to translate and when to translate.
It is a never ending story.
But with the beginning.
Last, but not least to underline again and to prove all above mentioned from my side in this interview for your prestige magazine, as a writer and poet from Bosnia and Herzegovina, I have just published a novel[xlii] by Serbian Publishing company „MostArt“ ( Belgrade, Serbia) and have promoted that in Albanian Embassy of Sarajevo on 18.4.2013. Three in one, isn't it? 

[1] Sternberg, R. ; Grigorenko, E; Singer, J (2005) Creativity – from Potential to realization. American Psychological Association, Washington DC. Also, definition of the creativity lays on the issue to whom we are targeting the question: What is definition of creativity and this time I was focusing on the poetry as the product of its own within the mind of creation.
[ii] Feeling is not the same as ratio
[iii] Titled: „Destiny“
[iv] As Prof. Bojana Škorc, Phd. (Belgrade, Serbia) wrote in the title of the book „Creativity within interaction“...I add: „My creativity is interaction as well“.
[vi] All poems translated in English from Bosnian/Serbian/Croatian (South-Slav language- BHS language) by Sabahudin Hadžialić
[vii] The agora (Ancient Greek: Ἀγορά, Agorá) was a central spot in ancient Greek city-states. The literal meaning of the word is "gathering place" or "assembly". The agora was the center of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of the city
[viii] Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of Socialist Federal Republicf of Yugoslavia from 1945 until 1992 and disolution of the country (as of 1991/92 now we have new countries instead one before: Slovenia, Maceddonia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and recently Kosovo*)
[ix] From Belgrade, commited suicide at the age of 27 back in 1960's.
[x] We have to get out from national exclusivity (we can use Heine and Troeltsch as starting points who have seen the problem between Franch and German – coomunication problems and  mentality issues - people after I World war, one as  the person who inherited romantism and other as historian and sociologist) and thoughts that other have to adjust to us without any questioning instead of thinking about exlusivity that we all are exlusive and let us unite within our diversities -  let us be with multi –identities, instead having just one. I often quote my aphorism: „Nation is the creation of the history. We just have to wait until the end of history.“ Only few are the members of two, but only one person is the member of all major ethnic association of writers within former Yugoslavia area (Association of writers of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Association of writers of Serbia, Association of writers of Montenegro and Croatian association of writers of Herzeg-Bosnia). The mentioned person 's name is Sabahudin Hadžialić.
[xi] Editor in chief Sabahudin Hadžialić
[xii] Not just me as an Editor, but also the whole Editorial board of the DIOGEN pro culture magazine
[xiii] Krystyna Lenkowska
[xiv] In poetry, enjambment or enjambement is the breaking of a syntactic unit (a phrase, clause, or sentence) by the end of a line or between two verses. It is to be contrasted with end-stopping, where each linguistic unit corresponds with a single line, and caesura, in which the linguistic unit ends mid-line. The term is directly borrowed from the French enjambement, meaning "straddling" or "bestriding". Enjambment is sometimes referred to as a "run-on line."
[xv] E-mail:
[xvi] English, German, Spanish, Arabian, Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Estonian, Polish, Italian, French, Hungarian, Turkish and Romanian -  Official www site:
[xvii] In verse(poetry) and/or prose
[xviii] With affiliation to the same civilization, we can only expect upgrade at the translation or rendering. The second question just imposes: What about translating or rendering other civilizations that vanished into the darkness of time, before us? How we could  know if we are "inserted that" in the translation or rendering  when we talks about civilization per se?
[xix]   Although the culture is the heritage of the whole group and the Latin word colere that talks about the "colonization, farming ..." it a strange word. In fact, we live in a time when culture is often gets skew form of simplified assumptions of expected  hopes - with translations or rendering. In medias res: Culture is called aqlso the rigid forms of human dreams, downgrade forms of the presentation of own legacy aimed towards underrate of other and different one. How do you fight against that? Through the  culture, but different kind. Promoting those values ​​that unite, inspire, and for a one moment not doing to others what we would not want someone to do to us. It is difficult, but as Erich Fromm wrote in the book "Escape from Freedom", "But, through whistling in the dark the light is not created." (Nolit, library Constellation, Belgrade, 1983, p.125). All we have to do is to act effectively.
[xx]   About the the standards (the norms) all the best! When we talk aboutthat we have to know to make difference between literary language and its rendering and /or translation in relation to the daily, slang language in which we live.
[xxi] Poetry
[xxii] Prose
[xxiii]   "A book is like a pair of scissors, a hammer or a nail, once fictional subject and nobody is no longer can  change it significantly, he said, and said that he is not afraid of the forecasts that modern media will overpower the book because the book is" definitely will be in use forever, " Umberto Eco, Book Fair in Istria, Croatia, 2006.

[xxiv]   Scientific Research Institute IBN SINA, Sarajevo - "Translation as the art and the science":
[xxv]   Peščanik: Boris Buden - "I believe that this fact must be associated with the traditional  idea of ​​translation as a mere reproduction of an original, which lacks authenticity and autonomy of its own":
[xxvi] country
[xxvii]   Ivo Andrić: "The bridge on the Drina" and the Nobel Prize for Literature 1961 and it comes from the little people from the Balkans.
[xxviii]   According to the number of members of the community and not in any other way.
[xxix]   Although not just once Erich Fromm mentioned in his book "Escape from Freedom" that it does not exist, but the ongoing/without stop battle for her...
[xxx]   And what is the "absolute" than  divine form of your own mind about the size of insects whom somebody call the people.

[xxxi]   Generally, as we stated,  95 % of the WWW is burdened with ignorance, hypocrisy, false hedonism that is directed towards insults and scorn of other and different ones, in other words, treating of own trauma becoming, electronically, entirely something else. Twenty-five percent is at the crossroads of knowledge and ignorance. How to overcome this? My suggestion is to always check what is that person and /or group was/were doing  10, 20, 30 years ago, and you will know. Evolution, in my humble opinion, in human consciousness exists only to the fact that it does not threaten me, because humans, stronger than animals,  tends towards admiration and obedience. Just need a leader or more of them, and the livestock is ready for pasture. Those 5% of others, with different opinion and attitude are here to be a force of the betterment as directed towards.
[xxxiii]   positive
[xxxiv]   negative
[xxxv]   The explanation is simple: Although within his postulates exists already mentioned, I think that it is necessary to separate "rendered translation" as upgrade of the creation itself, and that in collaboration with the author of the creation, which we are translating (in a case of the living, contemporary, author), where in the course of translating we conducts interviews and contacts with a a goal to have clarification of the certain parts of poeteic. Poetry is a wonder in the world. And then we add our "schmek" which creates a new creation. Because sometimes rendering is an upgrade of the creation itself. Example: My poems are translated from BHS language into English in 2011. by Anya Reich, and then from English into Estonian in 2012. University professor, Ph.D. Lauri Piltel, who has translated my poems from English, working on an introductory overview for the journal Akadeemia from Tartu, Estonia (November / December 2012th, No. 11, p. 2001.), have compared verses from my ten poems with poetic of the creation of Charles Bukowski, Witold Gombrowich, Walt Whitman, Ivo Andric, Mikhail Bulgakov, Danilo Kis and Mesa Selimovic: . And what to say after this? Through silence you say everything.
[xxxvi]   Linguistic, ideological, sociological reasons
[xxxvii]   Jules Marouzeau, Einführung ins Latein. Deutsche Übersetzung von und Bearbeitung André Lambert unter Mitwirkung Heinz von Haffter, Zurich und Stuttgart: Artemis Verlag, 1966. (Original: 1954.), Sec. XI.: The application of Latin language. Translated by Ivica Studenović - "Yes to could do that effectively, I thinks that should be determined the essential parameters of a good translation: the translation must be such that the reader finds in it not only the exact content of the text, display and sequence of thoughts with its nuances, but, as far as it is possible, the shape/form that encircle  that meaning: the form of  linguistic treasure,  grammatical form, syntactic structure, peculiarities of style, so that makes the translated text to be able to serve as a basis for interpretation or judgment of  the valuation as well as  the original text. "Exactly express the content of the text," says A. Guillemin in an article about the difficulties in translating (Revue des études latines, 1924. P. 182), "but also expressed  the impression which the reader gets through  reading of the text." "To be faithful" says Marcel Prévost in the introduction to his translation of Heroida (Collection of Buddha, p. XXII), "but also to express distinctiveness of a style ... achieve literary value of the original text in French ..., to set up French readers in that kinf of relation to the French text exactly as which Latin reader was towards the Latin text. " Squaring the Circle? asks Prévost himself. Certainly! "Express the Latin text in French," he says, "is one of those problems that mathematicians say that they have too many restrictions, such as four randomly spots  to connect with a circle ... in most cases the best is that we can try is to draw a circle through three points, and to bring as much as possible towards the fourth. " Very good! We set a goal for ourselves this convergence to the quadrature!
Another difficulty and the last - final warning. There's a tendency of translators whose roots are in our literary ambition, and it is difficult to be corrected: it is an attempt to sacrifice the sense to  the shape/form - how to say that in a happy way - literal towards a beauty. Question that students often ask themselves and that sometimes takes a fight against the affinities of  their teachers, being able to understand it more or less correctly, is this: can it be true or must it would be writen in good German? This question I woul like to formulate differently: Considering these two languages which are ​​both, in form and spirit, so different, it is impossible to have direct transition from one to the other, and must be applied endless efforts and drolleries to express one with another and it always seems  that we can do the task and/or  is not developed enough to deal with - which one of these two incompatible demands we will sacrifice: fidelity to the text, or beauty of the form? I would without hesitation, and from my own experience, no matter what it cost me to respect this response, say neither of them. If there is a readiness in principle to a abjure of a portion of the task, it will affect the whole task. Translation must be accurate and must be "German". Since it is impossible to simultaneously fulfill both requirements, the force of circumstances in both we are stopping halfway. However, this convergence is more valuable than any kind of half solution that would compensate the lack of interest for one claim through excessive concern for anothe claim. The worst would be for a translator that from principles to satisfy with the compromises. The translation must be and remain a struggle. In that case, the translation may be, more than the exercise of Latin and German language, become fruitful exercise and methodical act of spiritual integrity.

[xl]   Ivo Andric, quote:
[xli]   Although I do not like that word because has ordering in it.

[xlii] Titled CROSSROADS OF THE WORLDS- I part THE BOX OF LIFE“, I edition 2013. – story settled within XI and XXI  century within South-East Europe - Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia (and Turkey, Austria and France as well) seeking for identity, love and future of humanity. 

A brief c.v. of Sabahudin Hadžialić:

Sabahudin Hadžialić was born 23.9.1960.g. in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe.

Today he is a member of the Bosnia and Herzegovina Association of Writers (Sarajevo, BiH), Croatian writers association Herzeg Bosnia (Mostar, BiH), Association of writers Serbia (Belgrad, Serbia), Association of writers of Montenegro (Podgorica, Montenegro) and Journalists Association of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Association of independent intellectuals “Circle 99”, Sarajevo and Ambassador of POETAS del MUNDO in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
He is Freelance Editor in chief of  the electronic and print magazine "DIOGEN" pro culture: and Editor in chief of  E –magazine MaxMinus: from Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. 
He has the status of the Self-sustained artist in the Canton of Sarajevo since 1.1.2009. As of 1.1.2013. he has a status of Distinguish self-sustained artist in Canton of Sarajevo by the Decision of the Minister of culture and sport of the Canton. He writes poetry and prose with the editing and reviewing books of other authors. Works as honorary teacher on International University Travnik (BiH), Faculty of media and communications.
He was freelance editor in the publishing house Dhira, Küsnacht, Switzerland  (2009-2012). 
He  published poems, articles, essays (PR), aphorisms, plays and short stories in almost all major newspapers & magazines in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia. His poems, short stories and aphorisms have been published in journals in England, Ireland, Spain, Kosovo*, Italy and USA. 
His poetry and prose were translated into English, French, German, Spanish, Turkish, Italian, Arabian, Polish, Estonian, Albanian and Romanian. 
He was the co- owner is the first private newspaper in SR BiH "POTEZ", Bugojno, Bosnia and Herzegovina - 1990.
So far he has published fourteen books of poetry and prose. 
He published four  books internationally: Book of poetry in France 1998 (French language),  Book of aphorisms in Italy (Italian language), Book of poetry “Beggars of mind” (published in BiH back in 2003.) in Switzerland (German language) and “Selected poems” book of poetry (in English, German, Italian, Albanian, Spanish and French language). His art work has been included in anthologies of poetry in France, Canada and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and in the Anthology of satire of Bosnia and Herzegovina and of Balkans. He has won several awards among which are  the best: "May pen" for the best young poet of former Yugoslavia in 1987 (Svetozarevo). He lives in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

Prepared and edited:

2011. - Co-editor of the “Poets for World peace” Vol. 3 (Anthology of poems – poets from 25 countries from all around the World together with Dr. Ram Sharma from India)
2011. – Editor of the FIRST Anthology of ex-Yu aphorisms with 73 satirics/aphoristics from ex-Yu republics.
2014/15: Within the preparation are Second part…First part (The Box of life) has been published in April 2013., by Publisher, MostArt, Belgrade:  
The novel (trilogy "CROSSROADS OF THE WORLDS") Destiny of hope.

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